Professor Tom Graedel and team at Yale have published work which includes an assessment of the substitutability of 62 metals. The paper, entitled ‘On the materials basis of modern society,’ was published in PNAS.
The Yale methodology and results on subtitution are very similar to those of CRM_InnoNet, detailed in our report: Raw Material Profiles. The Yale work studied a much wider range of materials than CRM_InnoNet’s analysis, which is restricted to the EU-14 list of critical raw materials but provides more detailed supporting information for the substitutability levels assigned.
The Raw Materials Profiles report is open for consultation until August 2014. Comments should be sent by email to CRM@CIKTN.co.uk.